A literature review was undertaken to examine the following questions. What is a brief history of sexual assault prevention at US campuses? What are common sexual assault prevention strategies at US campuses? Are these prevention interventions effective in reducing sexual assault victim estimated (SAVE) numbers? What are the components of a typical empowerment self-defense (ESD) course? Why is there resistance to ESD courses?
This overview discussed the problem of sexual assault and that a combination of prevention strategies is required to reduce the SAVE numbers. In particular, ESD courses were highlighted.
Further research will investigate the curriculum and pedagogy of ESD courses from a martial science perspective. Compare the SAVE numbers in Japan to international SAVE numbers. Investigate the sexual assault prevention strategies at Japanese higher education institutions in light of sex as a taboo subject.
A literature review and small scale investigation were undertaken to examine if the physical movements of the martial arts could be considered a language. The characteristics of someone who is considered literate in the language of the martial arts was explored from a social practice and cognitive skill perspective of literacy. This report examined the relationship between martial arts discourse and the ideas of power and identity.
A literature review was undertaken to help understand the questions “What is self defense?”and “How do violent crimes happen?In answering the above questions the likeliness of being a victim of violent crime was investigated. The significant consequences of becoming a victim of violent crime were explored. Then the nature of violence was examined in the light of two broad categories Asocial Violence and Social Violence. The mechanics of asocial and social violent attacks were described.The paper concluded that violent crime is a hazard but that the risk of becoming a victim of violent crime can be reduced by understanding the process of violent crime.
The topic for further research suggested is how to reduce your chances of being selected as a victim of a violent assault.
This paper looked multimodality and its importance to understanding the meaning of texts. Two texts were examined to identify their multimodal (MM) elements and how these elements combine to make the meaning of the text as a whole. The texts were presented in two different mediums; a book and a webpage. Text 1 was the Larry Tatum’s (LT) webpage with an embedded movie describing martial arts training. A simplified transcription of the webpage movie was presented in Appendix 1 and the webpage can be accessed at: http://www.ltatum.com/movies/Week31/TOWJuneW2.rm
This paper looked at the classification of attacks found in self defense techniques in two self defense systems. The first one is based on the Kenpo Karate self defense system as designed by Ed Parker. The second classification is based on the SubLevel Kenpo Tactical Martial Science system designed by Dr Ron Chapél.At first the attacks from the self defense techniques contained in of the first syllabus, of each system, were described. The attacks were described physically, then through the lens of Psychology of Confrontation, and finally compared to the frequency of attacks found in today’s society.The author concluded that the first syllabus that new students will learn in both systems have merit and contain answers to the most common types of street assaults. The Kenpo Karate system is focused on a wider range of attacks on an unaware victim, whilst the SubLevel Kenpo Tactical system is focused on a narrower range of attacks on an aware victim.
The topic for further research suggested is the analysis of the defensive movements in the self defense techniques of the first syllabus in both of the martial systems.
This paper looked at the beginning process of designing the ideal phase of a self defense technique as described by martial science instructor Dr Ron Chapél.This paper drew on multidisciplinary information from the medical, law enforcement, self defense and military communities. At first martial philosophy was explored and then the psychology of confrontation was considered.The design process of the physical sequence of a self defense technique was briefly discussed. The author concluded that the process of designing a scenario based self defense technique requires a multidisciplinary approach and must include knowledge of how attacks occur in reality.
Topics for further research suggested included how criminal attacks happen in Japan; the design of physical moves of self defense techniques; the design of a martial science curriculum; and how a martial science curriculum is taught and assessed.